Saturday, June 25, 2011
Monday, June 20, 2011
I. TITLE: Hating Kapatid
II. SCRIPTWRITER: Mel Mendoza-Del Rosario
III. DIRECTOR: Wenn V. Deramas
He worked as a writer for the show TeysingTahanan and was promoted as the executive producer of Calvento Files. Since then Wenn Deramas has been directing different soap operas and movies.
Rica (Judy Ann Santos) and Cecil (Sarah Geronimo) are sisters whose parents are OFW in Libya. They are left in the care of their grandmother, Gerty (Gina Pareno) as they help her to tend their family fireworks business in Bocaue, Bulacan. Rica, being the oldest daughter, takes care of her sister and does it seriously. There were a time when an accident occur, making her little sister to get mild injuries. At that moment, she comes to the point of breaking her relationship with her boyfriend to give more attention to Cecil.
Ten years passed, the family moves to Manila and afterwards their parents (Cherry Pie Picache and TontonGuiterrez) return. However, Rica welcomes them bitterly as they have been away for twenty years.
Rica, as the protective and supportive sister she is, helps her sister to find a job. Cecil found a job as a sales clerk in a video store, where then she meets Edzel (Luis Manzano), insurance sales agent.
At first, they thought that Edzel has swindled them, but when the real people who stole their things were caught, Cecil apologized to him. Since then, they become close to each other. When Rica found about their growing relationship, she tried to keep them apart. On the other hand, Cecil wants to make her sister happy as well. Both her lola and she went to look for her older sister’s ex-boyfriend, Bong (JC De Vera). They found out that he is staying in Manila as well to organize his papers as a seaman. The plan turns out smoothly at first, however, as the time past, Rica feels betrayed by her sister and somehow she feels that she is not needed anymore, noting that her sister is rather closer to her parents and not to her any longer. They have an argument and Rica left the house to stay in their house in Bocaue, Bulacan instead.
While staying there, Rica realizes her mistake, and her selfishness. When Cecil visits her again, she accepts her and reconcile with her, explaining that she become selfish and she did not think about her sister’s feeling.
Their life turn out well, Bong propose to Rica and accepted it. Her family and she reconcile once again. Bong and Rica got married and have two children. Later Edzel and Cecil got married too.
The direction is properly organized and the meaning it wants to convey is clearly indicated in the story. The actors portrayed their respective characters as stated in their roles, how their facial expression contorted to glee, dismay and even sullenness are visible. The dialogues are expressed clearly and with emphasis in those important lines.
The story seems like a real life scenario, especially for Filipinos, since most of the overseas Filipino workers are experiencing some problems regarding their relationship with their family, in particular, their children. In the movie, it stated how the protagonist feels abandoned, even though they can get the things they want but the thing she really want is the attention of her parents. In addition, because, their parents are away, she is responsible of taking care of her little sibling. And when her parents return, the first thing she will feel is that she is not needed anymore, since she is only a temporary parent of her younger sibling.
· Judy Ann Santos- plays the role of Rica, the overprotective older sister of Cecil. Judy Ann portrayed her role well. Her feature and impression are fit in her role as a protective sister.
· Sarah Geronimo- plays the role of Cecil, Rica’s younger sister, a bubbly and cheerful woman who loves and cares for her sister. Sarah, known as a cheerful actor, fits the role of the younger sister. She is also an actor who is line as one of those young actors in the entertainment business.
· Luis Manzano- plays the role of Edzel, an insurance sales agent, who has weird part-time job. Luis portray his role naturally. Being a good actor, he can be comic in front of the camera and at the same time taking it seriously.
· JC De Vera- plays the role of Bong, Rica’s ex-boyfriend. In the story, Bong looks serious but comical as well. JC has played roles in both serious and comical, thus he manage to portray the role well.
· Vice Ganda- Beauty in the movie. As a well-knowncomedian, Vice Ganda makes the movie more humorous with her antics and lines.
· Gina Perano- Lola Gerty in the movie. Lola Gerty is the lively grandmother of Rica and Cecil. Ms. Gina Perano, has portrayed same roles from before, thus it become a usual thing for the viewer. And as well, if she is not the mother, she would be the grandmother.
· Cherry Pie Picache- she is the mother of Rica and Cecil. Cherry Pie is been known as a comedian and her roles are oftendense in every comedy film.
· Tonton Gutierrez- father of Rica and Cecil.
VIII. SOUND EFFECT:
The sound effects that the movie used are those natural sounds that can be heard in the surrounding. Like the beep of cars, people talking and other usual sound in a public place. However, there are those sound that they uses whenever there is a moment for the artist. Like in the part where Cecil and Edzel are getting close to each other, the music that was playing is a love song, which is fits with the situation, and when the situation is somewhat gloomy, a sullen song can be heard in the background. Even when there is a humorous happening, the sounds that they are using are comical.
• Muscular System is the anatomical system of a species that will allow it to move. It is made up of over 600 to 700 muscles, nearly all of them attached directly to the skeletal system.
• Myology the study of muscle determined that each muscle creates its own individual organs.
• It contributes to approximately 40% of body’s overall weight in an average size individual.
• Muscular system is comprised of more than just muscle; it is also comprised of connective tissues and nervous tissue.
• The muscular system relies on the body’s skeletal system as well as the nervous system in order to maintain body function.
Muscles are responsible for three basic functions in the body. Muscle create movement, generate heat, and provide postural support. The most obvious function, movement includes everything from the ability to walk to the ability to blink. Movement is caused by electrical impulses send to the specific and necessary muscle, which responds to the stimuli by the moving and propels the muscle as directed. Tonus, which is the constant generation of basic currents and stimulus through the body, is vital for blood flow through the muscle tissue. As well as a mild but continuous form of exercise throughout the muscle even at rest. Tonus is also a contributing component to involuntary muscle movements, such as a heartbeat.
Ø Muscle is the tissue that makes it possible for a person to move from place to place. The muscle makes the heart beat; forces the blood to circulate; and pushes the food through the digestive system. Muscles also provide strength, balance, posture, movement and heat for the body to keep warm.
Ø There are three distinct types of muscles: skeletal muscles, cardiac or heart muscles, and smooth (non-striated) muscles
TYPES OF MUSCLES
§ Striated or voluntary muscles.
§ Muscles are attached to the skeletons, causing the bones to move. They make a large part of the legs, chest, abdomen, neck and face.
§ All muscles are made up of cells called muscle fibers. Skeletal muscles fibers differ in appearance from the smooth muscles fibers. A fiber of skeletal muscle is long and slender that lies parallel to each other in bundles. They show alternating light and dark bands called striation.
§ Muscle that normally does not move and is closest to the central part of the body is called origin.
§ Muscle that does move and is attached to the bone is called insertion.
§ Flexor is a muscle that bends a joint and brings
§ A nerve must stimulate skeletal muscles or they will not operate.
o Smooth Muscle
§ Non-striated or involuntary
§ It is divided into two sub-groups; the single-unit (unitary) and multiunit smooth muscle. Within single-unit smooth muscle tissues, the autonomic nervous system innervates a single cell within a sheet or bundle and the action potential is propagated by gap junctions to neighboring cells such that the whole bundle or sheet contracts as a syncytium. Multiunit smooth muscle tissues innervate individual cells; as such, they allow for fine control and gradual responses, much like motor unit recruitment in skeletal muscle.
§ Smooth muscle is found within the walls of blood vessels (such smooth muscle specifically being termed vascular smooth muscle) such as in the tunica media layer of large (aorta) and small arteries, arterioles and veins. Smooth muscle is also found in lymphatic vessels, the urinary bladder, uterus (termed uterine smooth muscle), male and female reproductive tracts, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory tract, arrect or pili of skin, the ciliary muscle, and iris of the eye. The structure and function is basically the same in smooth muscle cells in different organs, but the inducing stimuli differ substantially, in order to perform individual effects in the body at individual times.
§ The smooth muscles fibers do not have striations so they are called non-striated. They do not have to be stimulated directly by a nerve to operate. Hormones can make smooth muscle works.
o Cardiac (Heart) Muscle
§ Resembles both skeletal and smooth muscles.
§ They have striations like the skeletal muscle but they cannot be controlled voluntarily like the smooth muscle.
§ A special regulator of the heart called sinoatrial node gives off rhythmic stimulations that cause the heart muscle to contract.
PROCESS OF THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM
Ø Upon stimulation by an action potential, skeletal muscles perform a coordinated contraction by shortening each sarcomere. The best proposed model for understanding contraction is the sliding filament model of muscle contraction. Actin and myosin fibers overlap in a contractile motion towards each other. Myosin filaments have club-shaped heads that project toward the actin filaments.
Ø Larger structures along the myosin filament called myosin heads are used to provide attachment points on binding sites for the actin filaments. The myosin heads move in a coordinated style, they swivel toward the center of the sarcomere, detach and then reattach to the nearest active site of the actin filament. This is called a rachet type drive system. This process consumes large amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Ø Energy for this comes from ATP, the energy source of the cell. ATP binds to the cross bridges between myosin heads and actin filaments. The release of energy powers the swiveling of the myosin head. Muscles store little ATP and so must continuously recycle the discharged adenosine diphosphate molecule (ADP) into ATP rapidly. Muscle tissue also contains a stored supply of a fast acting recharge chemical, creatine phosphate which can assist initially producing the rapid regeneration of ADP into ATP.
Ø Calcium ions are required for each cycle of the sarcomere. Calcium is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum into the sarcomere when a muscle is stimulated to contract. This calcium uncovers the actin binding sites. When the muscle no longer needs to contract, the calcium ions are pumped from the sarcomere and back into storage in the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
COMMON INJURIES AND DISEASES OF THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM
· Muscle Strain
A muscle strain is a tear or stretch in the muscle fiber or the tendon that
connects a muscle to a bone. It can range from a relatively mild injury, with
some muscle fibers being torn, to a large muscle tear with swelling and bleeding.
Muscle strains are usually caused by:
1. Muscular imbalance – This occurs when one side of the joint is
stronger than the other or the opposite muscle does not relax while the other contracts. This can be traced in most cases to either a lack of conditioning or overtraining one muscle group versus an opposing muscle group, the front of the thighs (quadriceps) versus the back of the thighs (hamstrings).
2. Muscle fatigue – This occurs when additional stress is put on a muscle and its connective tissue. The more active a person is, the greater his/her risk of injury. Poorly conditioned people are also at risk when they do strenuous activities without proper preconditioning.
The following are the signs/symptoms of muscle strain:
1. Pain in a muscle group or joint;
2. Swelling of a muscle group or joint; and
3. Tenderness in a muscle group or joint.
The following are some first-aid tips when you experience muscle
· Reduce your activities. Avoid movements that place stress on the injured area.
· Consult a doctor if:
a. there is excessive swelling, bruising and/or tenderness in the injured area;
b. the pain prevents you from moving.
· Muscle spasms or cramps
Are contractions of the muscles, which are often painful. Muscle twitching is the result of minor local muscle contractions or the uncontrollable twitching of a single muscle group served by a single motor nerve fiber or filament.
Muscle spasms or cramps are commonly caused by:
1. Muscle fatigue;
2. Heavy exercise;
3. Dehydration; and
Poliomyelitis or what is commonly known as polio is a disorder caused by a viral infection (poliovirus) that affects the whole body including muscles and nerves. Severe cases may cause permanent paralysis or even death. It is usually manifested by loss of muscle tone and bulk. People with polio usually have unequally sized legs which cause impaired movement. Polio has a vaccine but is very hard to treat when already present in one’s body. Poliomyelitis is a communicable disease caused by infection with the poliovirus. Transmission of the virus occurs by direct person-to-person contact, by contact with infected secretions from the nose or mouth or by contact with infected feces. The virus enters through the mouth and nose, multiplies in the throat and intestinal tract and then is absorbed and spread through the blood and lymph system.
· Muscular Dystrophy
Muscular Dystrophy (MD) is a group of genetic diseases that cause the muscle fibers to become easily damaged. There are over one dozen different types of MD. The most common general symptoms of MD are muscle weakness, lack of coordination and loss of mobility. The most severe type, Duchenne's muscular dystrophy, can cause mental retardation and primarily affects young boys. MD is diagnosed through genetic tests, muscle biopsies, blood tests that measure for high levels of creatine kinase and ultrasounds. There is no cure for MD, but it can be treated to reduce the severity with physical therapy, medication, surgery and special braces.
Signs and symptoms:
1. Progressive muscular wasting
2. Poor balance
3. Drooping eyelids
5. Loss of bladder control
6. Scoliosis (curvature of the spine and the back)
7. Inability to walk
8. Frequent falls
9. Waddling gait
10. Calf deformation
11. Limited range of movement
12. Respiratory difficulty
There is no known cure for muscular dystrophy, although significant headway is being made with antisense oligonucleotides. Inactivity (such as bed rest and even sitting for long periods) can worsen the disease. Physical therapy, occupational therapy, orthotic intervention (e.g., ankle-foot orthosis), speech therapy and orthopedic instruments (e.g., wheelchairs and standing frames) may be helpful.
There is no specific treatment for any of the forms of muscular dystrophy. Physical therapy to prevent contractures and maintain muscle tone, orthoses (orthopedic appliances used for support) and corrective orthopedic surgery may be needed to improve the quality of life in some cases. The cardiac problems that occur with Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy and myotonic muscular dystrophy may require a pacemaker. The myotonia (delayed relaxation of a muscle after a strong contraction) occurring in myotonic muscular dystrophy may be treated with medications such as quinine, phenytoin, or mexiletine, but no actual long term treatment has been found.with MD in engaging in his/her activities of daily living (self-feeding, self-care activities, etc.) and leisure activities at the most independent level possible. This may be achieved with use of adaptive equipment or the use of energy conservation techniques. Occupational therapy may implement changes to a person's environment, both at home or work, to increase the individual's function and accessibility. Occupational therapists also address psychosocial changes and cognitive decline which may accompany MD, as well as provide support and education about the disease to the family and individual.
This uncommon autoimmune disease causes muscle weakness accompanied by a skin rash. It can affect anyone but is most commonly seen in adults ages 40 to 60 and children ages five to 15. Symptoms include a light purple or red rash on the face, hands, knees, chest and back and progressive muscle weakness. It may also cause difficulty swallowing, muscle pain, ulcers, fever, fatigue and weight loss. Doctors are uncertain of the cause but believe it may be genetic. Treatment includes pain management, corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs. Although dermatomyositis has no cure, it can go into remission.
Compartment syndrome occurs when too much pressure builds up in and around the muscles. It can result from crushing injuries, extended pressure on a blood vessel, swelling inside a cast, or complications from surgery. Symptoms include severe pain, a feeling of fullness or tightness in the muscle, and a tingling sensation. Numbness indicates cellular death, and it may be difficult to restore full function once it reaches that point. Surgery to relieve the pressure is usually required.
Rhabdomylosis damages both the muscles and the kidneys by causing the muscle fibers to breakdown and be released into the blood stream. The fibers erode into a substance called myoglobin, which blocks the kidney structures and can lead to kidney failure. Alcoholism, heatstroke, cocaine and heroin overdoses, seizures, and severe exertion are possible causes. If the condition is caught early, intravenous fluids are given to restore hydration. Once kidney damage occurs, treatment focuses on restoring renal functions and preventing further damage. Signs of rhabdomyolysis include weakness, muscle stiffness and pain, joint pain and weight gain.
o Fluid therapy
The main goal of treatment is to treat shock and preserve kidney function. Initially this is done through the administration of generous amounts of intravenous fluids, usually saline (0.9% weight per volume sodium chloride solution). In victims of crush syndrome (e.g. in earthquakes), it is recommended to start this even before the casualties are extracted from collapsed structures. This will ensure sufficient circulating volume to deal with the muscle cell swelling (which typically commences when blood supply is restored), and to prevent the deposition of myoglobin in the kidneys. Amounts of 6 to 12 liters over 24 hours are recommended.
In the initial stages, electrolyte levels are often abnormal and require correction. Calcium levels initially tend to be low, but as the patient’s condition improves calcium are released from where it has precipitated with phosphate, and vitamin D production resumes, leading to hypercalcemia (abnormally high calcium levels). This "overshoot" occurs in 20–30% of those people who have developed kidney failure.
o Acute renal failure
If kidney dysfunction (acute renal failure, ARF) develops (usually 1–2 days after the initial muscle trauma), renal replacement therapy (RRT) may be required. This may take the form of hemodialysis or hemofiltration. Certain types of peritoneal dialysis are also effective in removing the high levels of toxic solutes that can accumulate in rhabdomyolytic renal failure, and may be the only available option in some Third World settings.
RRT removes excess potassium, acid and phosphate that accumulates when the kidneys are unable to function normally and is required until kidney function is regained.
· Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare congenital disease that affects approximately one in two million people worldwide and causes muscles, tendons and ligaments to be replaced with bone tissue. Since it is a congenital disease, it begins before birth but is generally diagnosed in childhood. The earliest sign is malformed big toes at birth. The disease generally affects the neck and shoulders during childhood and continues downward throughout adolescence and adulthood. Any type of trauma, including falls and medical procedures, can trigger an episode. There are no effective treatments for FOP. Medication is usually given to treat the pain associated with the new bone formation.
Did you know that?
The muscular system is responsible for the body’s ability to move. Each muscle is dedicated to its own movement, one muscle for the movement of the finger, one muscle for the movement of the eyelid, and one muscle for the movement of the tongue. However, a group of muscles might be responsible for a single body part, such as one muscle may move the leg forward but a different muscle moves the leg back.